Lead (Pb) is a persistent environmental contaminant that is toxic to humans, primarily in the developmental stages of life. It is believed that environment and nutrition play a role in determining health. Most recently, it has been recognized by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences that the interaction between pathogens and toxic agents may contribute to disease development in humans. In fact, epidemiological studies suggest that there may be a correlation between lead exposure and obesity in children and that this effect may be long-lasting, resulting in adulthood obesity.
Perinatal lead exposure in mice
The microbiome has recently been recognized as contributing to health and disruptions in gut microbiota constitution as been associated with chronic illnesses. To investigate the phenomena of Pb-induced obesity, mice were exposed to lead during the perinatal period. Researchers studied how lead exposure around the time of birth impacted gut microbiota, and then watched to observe whether changes to the microbiome influenced bodyweight.
They found that exposure to lead early in development did alter the bacterial composition of the digestive tract. Pb affected the resilience and diversity of bacteria normally present in the gut; disrupting the balance between aerobic and anaerobic bacterium. Continue reading
Fat Is Alive
Most people think of fat as being inert, having no real purpose in the body than to keep you warm, and to prevent you from ever having the perfect summer body. The role of fat in the body is so under-appreciated, that when the doctor says, “you need to lose weight”, people often see it as an issue of “body shaming” rather than one of health. This is because fat is not seen as being alive, but as a by-product of too much sugar and starch. While the reality is that fat IS alive, in fact the fat in our bodies is made up of cells called adipocytes, and these cells comprise the functional unit of adipose tissue. Adipocytes and adipose tissue are a part of the endocrine and central nervous system.
Adiocytes – Living Fat
Adipocyte are specialized cells within adipose tissue that contain lipids in the form of multiple round droplets of triglycerides. Triglycerides are the building blocks of fats, as amino acids are the foundation of proteins. Adipocytes simply put are fat cells that transport and produce fat.
There are three types of fat cells: Continue reading
A consequence of the obesity epidemic, which began in the United States during the 1980s, is the targeting of milk as a possible contributing factor for weight gain, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, due to its high fat content. As a result, in the mid 1990’s, the U.S. Department of Agriculture recommended switching to reduced-fat milk, and the consumption of whole milk fell drastically. As this was happening, the growth of soy and soy “milk” paved the way for other milk-alternative beverages, such as, almond, coconut, and cashew “milk”, and consumers began to question whether it was healthy or natural for human to consume animal milk at all. In addition to fears that milk contributed to obesity, and the metabolic disorders that go along with excessive weight gain, milk allergy, and anecdotal reports of milk worsening rhinitis, and triggering asthma began to surface.
However, in the past decade, several studies have reported beneficial health effects of cow’s milk in the prevention of the development of asthma and allergy in children, as well as, protection against cancer, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in adults.
Further investigation into the composition of milk, and its components haves revealed that it may be time to reconsider the health benefits of milk again. In addition to its nutritional value, the ingredients in milk possess bioactive functionality. The protein, lipid, and saccharide components of milk contain molecules that are anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and immunogenic (capable of modulating the immune system), in addition to improving the body’s response to insulin and regulation of fat. Continue reading