“Obese Microbiota” in Men linked to Lead Exposure

Lead (Pb) is a persistent environmental contaminant that is toxic to humans, primarily in the developmental stages of life. It is believed that environment and nutrition play a role in determining health. Most recently, it has been recognized by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences that the interaction between pathogens and toxic agents may contribute to disease development in humans. In fact, epidemiological studies suggest that there may be a correlation between lead exposure and obesity in children and that this effect may be long-lasting, resulting in adulthood obesity.

Perinatal lead exposure in mice

The microbiome has recently been recognized as contributing to health and disruptions in gut microbiota constitution as been associated with chronic illnesses. To investigate the phenomena of Pb-induced obesity, mice were exposed to lead during the perinatal period.  Researchers studied how lead exposure around the time of birth impacted gut microbiota, and then watched to observe whether changes to the microbiome influenced bodyweight.micescale

Microbiome Imbalance

They found that exposure to lead early in development did alter the bacterial composition of the digestive tract.  Pb affected the resilience and diversity of bacteria normally present in the gut; disrupting the balance between aerobic and anaerobic bacterium. Continue reading

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Healthy Diet: What Really Causes Cardiovascular Disease

Americans are increasingly concerned with eating healthy. Over the past two decades, there has been a myriad of changes in the public’s perception of what is and isn’t healthy. Initially, it was generally agreed upon and understood that a diet consisting mainly of greasy food and too much sweets was unhealthy. However, the consensus on what foods are to be considered healthy versus harmful has become complex and the subject of much debate. For instance, it was once considered unhealthy to eat eggs, though the medical consensus has changed— it turns out that eggs are not as high in cholesterol as once thought—many people still maintain that the yolks should be removed, and that egg whites are healthier.

Much of the focus on health has revolved around a single nutrient, food, or food group. For example, whole wheat  became preferred over bleached flour, then eventually, eating any wheat at all became controversial and wheat-free diets were promoted. The same happened with rice: white rice gave way to brown rice, which then gave way to quinoa. Super foods like soy, kale, and chia seeds became popular, along with fad diets, like the Atkins diet which emphasized low carbohydrate intake, and the Southbeach diet. Most recently,  health gurus promoted health concepts which lead to the  alkaline diet, out of which came alkaline water. Now, sensationalized documentaries are leading people to abandon meat and dairy all together.

As a result, many are unfortunately left confounded when it comes to what they should or should not eat. There is much fear surrounding food safety and health, due impart to a lack of understanding of nutritional requirements and technological advancements in food production, leaving many weary that meat and dairy, in particular, can lead to the development of Cardiovascular disease and Type 2 Diabetes. However, focusing on the beneficial effects of a single nutrient, food, or food group does not comprise a healthy diet. What is more important is dietary pattern; the amounts, frequency, and variety of nutrients and foods that are consumed habitually, coupled with other lifestyle factors, are the greatest determinants in the association of diet and health, as Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes are consequences of leading a sedentary lifestyle while being overweight or obese. Continue reading